Type of Blood Tests


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The importance of Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and other Tests for Diabetes

  How to determine that you are a Diabetes? Prediabetes? or Non diabetes?

Doctors can determine whether a patient has a normal metabolism, prediabetes or diabetes in one of three different ways there are three possible tests:

  • The HbA1C test
  • The FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test
  • The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test)

The HbA1C test (3 months average glucose level)

 Between 4.5% to 6.4% is non diabetes (excellent)

 Between 6.5% to 7% (Ok, but prediabetes)

 More than 7.1% to 8% (Poor but acceptable)

 More than 8.1% (Poor unacceptable)

The FPG test (morning before breakfast)

  • 126 mg/dl or more means diabetes
    100 mg/dl to 125.99 mg/dl means prediabetes
    99 mg/dl or less means normal (non-diabetes)

The OGTT (oral glucose test done in clinics)

  • 200 mg/dl means diabetes
    140 -199 mg/dl means prediabetes
    140 mg/dl or less means normal

What is Hemoglobin A1c means?

The hemoglobin A1c test, also called HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin test, or glycohemoglobin, is an important blood test that shows how well your diabetes is being controlled. Hemoglobin A1c provides an average of your blood sugar control over the past 2 to 3 months and is used along with home blood sugar monitoring to make adjustments in your diabetes medicines. Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout your body. When your diabetes is not controlled (meaning that your blood sugar is too high), sugar builds up in your blood and combines with your hemoglobin, becoming “glycated.” The average amount of sugar in your blood can be found by measuring your hemoglobin A1c level. If your glucose levels have been high over recent weeks, your hemoglobin A1c test will be higher.

Know your Glucose level

For people without diabetes, the normal range for the hemoglobin A1c test is between 4.5% and 6.4%. Hemoglobin A1c levels between 6.5% and 7% indicate increased risk of diabetes, and levels of 7.1% or higher indicate diabetes. Because studies have repeatedly shown that out-of-control diabetes results in complications from the disease, the goal for people with diabetes is a hemoglobin A1c less than 7%.

Your 3 months Glucose average level

The higher the hemoglobin A1c, the higher the risks of developing complications related to diabetes. People with diabetes should have this test every 3 months to determine whether their blood sugars have reached the target level of control. Those who have their diabetes under good control may be able to wait longer between the blood tests, but experts recommend checking at least 2 times a year.

Abnormal results

People with diseases affecting hemoglobin, such as anemia, may get abnormal results with this test. Other abnormalities that can affect the results of the hemoglobin A1c include supplements such as vitamins C and E and high cholesterol levels. Kidney disease and liver disease may also affect the result of the hemoglobin A1c test.